The certificate students receive if they have passed a high school equivalency test. Students who don't have a high school diploma but who have a GED (diploma equivalency) still qualify for Federal student aid.
Courses designed to provide general knowledge and skills to promote educational success.
GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness for Undergraduate Programs)
Federally funded program which involves local and state partnerships working with middle schools and high schools in under-resourced communities. The purpose is to help students plan for and prepare for college.
An evaluation of a student’s work. See Grading System for more information.
Grade Point Average (GPA), Letter Grades
High School: An average of all letter grades earned in most high school courses (does not include physical education, ROTC, study skills, inside work experience, etc.).
College: Grades at most colleges are figured using the following method: As are worth 4 points Bs are worth 3 points Cs are worth 2 points Ds are worth 1 point Fs are worth 0 points To figure a college GPA, simply multiply the number of hours a course is worth by the number of points for the letter grade, then add up the totals for each course and divide by the number of credit hours. The result is the grade point average.
Note: For more information on calculating your GPA to use on college applications, please visit “Ask UC” http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/educators/counselors/resources/askuc/answers/calculating.html#3. Also see section on Weighted & Unweighted GPA’s
The type of scale --- letter grade, percentage, pass/fail — used by schools and colleges in the United States. Most institutions commonly use letter grades to indicate the quality of a student's academic performance: "A" (excellent), "B" (good), "C" (average), "D" (below average), and "F" (failing). Work rated "C" or above is usually required of an undergraduate student to continue his or her studies; work rated "B" or higher is typically required of a graduate student to continue. Grades of "P" (pass), "S" (satisfactory), and "N" (no credit) are also used. In percentage scales, 100 percent is the highest mark, and 65 to 70 percent is usually the lowest passing mark. Some schools and colleges use standards-based grading systems which do not involve letter grades and which include other methods of demonstrating proficiency and advanced proficiency.
Graduate/Graduate Program/Graduate Student
A student who has completed a course of study, either at the high school or college level. A graduate program at a university is a course of study for students who already hold bachelor's degrees. A graduate student is usually enrolled in a Masters or PhD program.
Money typically given to a college or university by the state and/or federal government. Eligible students receive grant awards from the colleges they attend. Grants do not have to be repaid. Grants provided through California and the U.S. government include, but are not limited to: Cal Grant A, Cal Grant B, Cal Grant C, Federal Pell Grant, and Federal Supplemental Education Opportunity Grant.
Honors Course (high school)
A College or University may grant special “honor” designation and extra credit in a students’ grade point average computation only to those high school honors level courses that meet specific criteria set by the college or university. UC/CSU strongly encourage that such courses be available to all students.
Students are recognized for GPAs above certain specified levels. Criteria for President’s, Dean’s, or other honor rolls vary at different colleges. In most cases, students must be enrolled full-time to be eligible.
Humanities courses are classes covering subjects such as literature, philosophy, and the fine arts. Most undergraduate degrees require a certain number of humanities credit hours.
A degree program which because of heavy enrollment may be temporarily closed to new student enrollment. Some impacted programs may require supplementary screening or filing earlier applications (i.e., Engineering).
This option allows students to complete some of their credit requirements by studying on their own. A student and her/his faculty adviser agree in advance on the topic and approach of the study program and meet periodically to discuss the student’s progress. A final report is handed in for a grade at the end of the term.
Institute of Technology
An institution of higher education that specializes in the sciences and technology.
Faculty members from several disciplines contribute to the development of the course of study and may co-teach the course.
The International Baccalaureate (IB)
This program offers high quality programs of international education to a worldwide community of schools. The three programs are for students aged 3 to 19 and they help develop intellectual, personal, emotional and social skills to live, learn and work in a rapidly globalizing world. Many colleges and universities give an extra GPA point for approved IB courses.
For more information, go to www.ibo.org.
This is an experience-based opportunity, most often scheduled during breaks in the academic calendar, whereby a student receives credit for a supervised work experience related to his or her major. In some academic programs, internships may include salary and college credit.
See Community College
Classes which require students to perform certain functions in controlled situations that help them test and understand what is being taught in the lecture.
Classes which students attend on a regularly scheduled basis and in which the instructor lectures on class material.
Money borrowed from government or private institutions to assist in the funding of educational expenses. Some common loans provided by the government include: Federal Perkins and Federal Stafford. Federal student loan programs are typically better than most consumer loans because they have lower interest rates and do not require a credit check or collateral. The Stafford Loans and Perkins Loans also provide a variety of deferment options and extended repayment terms.
Field of study in which a student pursues specialized study. The concentration of a number of credit hours in a specific subject. Colleges and universities often specify the number of credits needed to receive a major, the sequence of courses, and the level of course necessary to complete the requirements. NOTE: Undergraduates usually choose a major after the first two years of general courses in the arts and sciences.
Degree conferred by an institution of higher learning after students complete academic requirements that usually include a minimum of one year's study beyond the bachelor's degree.
Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement Program (MESA)
Academic enrichment programs for students in grades 7 through 12. MESA encourages students to succeed in high school and college and to prepare for professions in science and mathematics. MESA includes tutoring services, college advising, and motivational activities.
A student matriculates in college when he or she enrolls in college for the first time. A student who just started the freshman year in high school will matriculate in four years. A newborn baby will matriculate in approximately 17 years.
Merit-based Aid/Merit-based Financial Aid
Financial aid that is awarded based on a student's abilities and/or performance
Mid-Term Exams (Midterms)
During the middle of each semester, instructors may give mid-term exams that test students on the material covered during the first half of the semester. Some classes have only two tests, a midterm and a final.
Field of study in which a student pursues, to a lesser degree, a specialized study.
An area of concentration with fewer credits than a major. The minor can be related to the major area of concentration or not; for example, an English major may have a minor in theater.
National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (NMSQT)
This test is offered to high school juniors and is used as a basis for college scholarships from a wide variety of sources. In addition, some private colleges use the NMSQT scores as information in the college entrance screening process. NMSQT finalists must take the SAT I exam by the following October in order to compete as a NMSQT finalist.
Need, Need Analysis
The difference between the COA and the EFC is the student's financial need -- the gap between the cost of attending the school and the student's/family’s resources. The financial aid package is based on the amount of financial need. The process of determining a student's need is known as need analysis.
Cost of Attendance (COA)
- Expected Family Contribution (EFC)
Financial assistance that is awarded based on a student’s/family’s economic ability to pay for college tuition and other college-related expenses. Most governmental grants and loans are need-based.
Admissions decisions made without reference to a student’s financial aid request, that is, an applicant’s financial need is not known to the committee at the time of decision.
Most schools use a need-blind admissions process. A few schools will use financial need to decide whether to accept or include marginal students in the wait list.
A course that not meet the requirements for a certificate of a degree at a given institution. Non-credit courses may serve one of several purposes: to explore new fields of study, increase proficiency in a particular profession, develop potential or enrich life experiences through cultural and/or recreational studies.
A student who has either not been admitted yet but is taking classes or has been academically dismissed. Under this category, a student may neither receive financial aid nor participate in an athletic program at that school.
Students who do not meet the residence requirements of the state or city that has a public college or university. Tuition fees and admissions policies may differ for residents and non-residents. Foreign students are usually classified as non-residents, and there is little possibility of changing to resident status at a later date for fee purposes. Most publicly supported institutions will not permit a foreign student to be classified as a resident student while on a student visa.
Open Admissions/Open-Door College
A policy of admission that does not subject applicants to a review of their academic qualifications. Many public community/junior colleges admit students under this guideline, that is, any student with a high school diploma or its equivalent is admitted. Further many open-door colleges admit anyone who is 18 years of age or older, whether or not he/she is a high school graduate. "Open admissions," therefore, can mean slightly different things at different schools.
A student who has not met the legal residency requirements for the state, and is often charged a higher tuition rate at public colleges and universities in the state.
Parent Contribution (PC)
An estimate of the portion of your educational expenses that the federal government believes your parent/s can afford. It is based on their income, the number of parents earning income, assets, family size, the number of family members currently attending a university and other relevant factors. Students who qualify as independent are not expected to have a parent contribution.
Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS)
Federal loans available to parents of dependent undergraduate students to help finance the child's education. Parents may borrow up to the full cost of their children's education, less the amount of any other financial aid received. PLUS Loans may be used to pay the EFC. There is a minimal credit check required for the PLUS loan, so a good credit history is required. Check with your local bank to see if they participate in the PLUS loan program. If your application for a PLUS loan is turned down, your child may be eligible to borrow additional money under the Unsubsidized Stafford Loan program.
Part-Time Enrollment/Part-Time Student
A part-time student is enrolled in less than 12 credit hours in a semester (less than 6 in a Summer term).
Pass/Fail Class or Course
Pass/fail Classes or courses do not earn letter grades or grade points for students. If a student passes a pass/fail course, he/she receives a "P" (pass) or "S" (satisfactory) on the transcript and the credit hours. If the student does not pass the course, they will receive an "F" (fail) or a "U" (unsatisfactory) on the transcript and no credit hours. The evaluation for the pass/fail course is not figured into the student’s GPA.
Money for college given to the undergraduate student by the federal government. The Federal Pell Grant is typically awarded to students whose families earn less than $40,000 a year. While there may be students that have greater levels of need, students that qualify for the Pell Grant definitely need assistance if they are going to be able to afford college.
The maximum award amount changes each year due to budget fluctuations, however, it typically floats around $4,000 a year. To apply, students must submit a FAFSA or FHA form as soon as possible after January lst. All FAFSA forms must officially be filed by March 2nd; however, it is important to check with a college’s financial aid office to determine their exact FAFSA deadline requirements as some colleges operate on a first-come, first-served basis and/or require January FAFSA filings.
An examination used to test a student’s academic ability in a certain field so that he or she may be placed in the appropriate courses in that field. In some cases a student may be given academic credit based on the results of a placement test.
A test taken in the fall of the sophomore year in high school as practice for the ACT.
Term that refers to higher education institutions that continue to offer opportunities to students learning beyond high school. Postsecondary education can involve a range of options.
Customarily university or college-based programs that provide college awareness and academic outreach services to students in elementary, middle and high school. Programs vary by campus, size, duration, population served and services offered. These include programs such as Early Academic Outreach Program, Upward Bound, MESA, Latino College Preparatory Academy, etc.
Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT)
The PSAT is taken during the junior year as practice for the SAT. Scores on the PSAT are used to select semi-finalists for the National Merit Scholarship program.
This standardized test serves as a practice exam for the SAT I: Reasoning Test and the SAT II: Writing Test. In a student's junior year, the exam gives students a chance to qualify for the National Merit Scholarship Corporation's scholarship programs.
Prepaid Tuition Plan
A college savings plan that is guaranteed to rise in value at the same rate as college tuition. For example, if a family purchases shares that are worth half a year's tuition at a state college, they will always be worth half a year's tuition, even 10 years later when tuition rates will have doubled.
Program or course that a student is required to complete before being permitted to enroll in a more advanced program or course.
A non-state-assisted college or university that relies on private funding, endowments, tuition, and fees. Private institutions are governed by a board of trustees.
Education loan programs established by private lenders to supplement the student and parent education loan programs available from federal and state governments.
Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT)
The PSAT may be taken by sophomores and juniors who are interested in preparing for the SAT I exam. The PSAT is given once a year (often on a Saturday) in October. The test results are officially sent to colleges, but are not officially used in the final college admissions process. The PSAT also determines NMSQT finalists.
This test, given in October, duplicates the kinds of questions asked on the SAT but is shorter and takes less time. Usually taken in the junior year, the test also acts as a qualifying instrument for the National Merit Scholarship Awards Program and is helpful for early college guidance.
Colleges/universities which receive funding from the state or other governmental entities and are administered by public boards.
Recommendation, Letter of
A letter appraising an applicant's qualifications, written by a teacher, employer, coach, or other adult (not a family member) who knows the applicant's character and work. Also called: personal recommendation, personal endorsement, or personal reference letter.
The person/administrative office in a college responsible for the maintenance of all academic records. Areas of responsibility may also include: maintenance of class enrollments, providing statistical information on student enrollment, certification of athletic eligibility and student eligibility for honor rolls, certification of the eligibility of veterans, administering probation and retention policies and verification of the completion of degree requirements for graduation.
Process through which students select courses to be taken during a quarter, semester, or trimester.
Most colleges require that applications for regular admissions be mailed by either November 30th or December 3lst. Others have alternate or rolling deadlines. A student should check the web sites of specific colleges to obtain their deadlines. Most colleges will inform a student of their decision by April 1 and require that he/she makes a decision about whether to matriculate by May 1. A student considered to be a "hot prospect," may receive a letter from a college admissions director prior to April, which will not give a formal acceptance but it will give an indication that the acceptance is extremely likely and encourage the student to attend that college.
A scholarship that is awarded for more than one year. Usually the student must maintain certain academic standards to be eligible for subsequent years of the award. Some renewable scholarships will require the student to reapply for the scholarship each year; others will just require a report on the student's progress to a degree.
The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC)
A college-based, officer commissioning program, predominantly in the United States. It is designed as a college elective that focuses on leadership development, problem solving, strategic planning, and professional ethics ROTC produces officers in all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces except the U.S. Coast Guard.
The term has more than one meaning. It can refer to the fact that a college may require a specific number of course to be taken on campus to receive a degree from the school, or the phrase can mean the time, by law, that is required for a person to reside in the state to be considered eligible for in-state tuition at one of its public colleges or universities.
There is no deadline (or an extended deadline) for filing a college application. Colleges that offer rolling admission continuously evaluate applicants and notify the applicants regarding acceptance on a month or two after the application is completed.
This concept is used most often by state universities and some private colleges. Responses are received within three to four weeks. If admitted, a student is not required to confirm, in most cases, until May 1. Out-of-state residents applying to state universities should apply as early as possible.
Scholastic Assessment Test I: Reasoning Test. The SAT I is one of two most widely used tests in college admissions. It is a three hour test, primarily multiple-choice, that measures verbal and mathematical reasoning abilities. SAT I is given several times each year and is used by college admissions staff to compare applicants.
Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) I: Reasoning Test — Also known as “board scores” because the test was developed by the College Board. This test concentrates on verbal and mathematical reasoning abilities and is given throughout the academic year at test centers. The maximum combined score for both sections is 1600.
SAT I Logical Reasoning Test — Three-hour, logical reasoning college entrance exam consisting of two main sections: verbal and mathematics.
Scholastic Assessment Test II: Subject Tests. Subject Tests are one hour, primarily multiple-choice, exams that measure a student’s knowledge of a particular subject and her/his ability to apply knowledge. Some colleges require one or more of the SAT II tests for admissions and/or placement. University of California requires three SAT II Subject Exams, including the Writing Test, the Mathematics Level I or IIC, and one test in one of the following areas: English literature, foreign language, science, or social studies. On a given test date, a maximum of three SAT II subject tests may be taken.
These subject-specific exams are given on the same test dates and in the same centers as the SAT I. More emphasis has been placed on these tests in recent years, not only because they are used for admission purposes, but also for placement and exemption decisions.
Twenty-two one-hour subject tests consisting primarily of multiple choice questions. Many colleges require or recommend one or more of these subject tests for admission or placement.
Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP)
A student must make this in order to continue receiving federal aid. If a student fails to maintain an academic standing consistent with the school's SAP policy, they are unlikely to meet the school's graduation requirements.
Schedule of Classes
Colleges publish and distribute a Class Schedule book (and/or post a class schedule on line) for each semester. With the help of academic advisors and/or faculty members, students make up their own individual class schedules for each semester in which they are enrolled. Courses are designated in the Class Schedule by course department, course number, time and days the course meets, the room number and building name, and the instructor’s name.
A class schedule is also the list of classes a student is taking, which includes course name and number, time and location of the class, and possibly the instructor.
Money that is awarded to qualified students who are chosen as recipients based on certain accomplishments, characteristics, skills and/or abilities they possess. There are all types of educational scholarships available, including those set aside for disadvantaged students. Other common types of scholarship funds are given for good grades and for participating in extracurricular activities. Scholarships are very special awards to receive, and like grants, they do not have to be paid back.
Scholarship: A study grant of financial assistance, usually given at the undergraduate level, that may be supplied in the form of a cancellation or remission of tuition and/or fees.
A form of financial aid given to undergraduate students to help pay for their education. Most scholarships are restricted to paying all or part of tuition expenses, though some scholarships also cover room and board. Scholarships are a form of gift aid and do not have to be repaid. Many scholarships are restricted to students in specific courses of study or with academic, athletic or artistic talent.
Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT)
One of the two national standardized college entrance examinations used in the US. The other is the ACT. The SAT (previously known as the Scholastic Aptitude Test) is administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). Most universities require either the ACT or the SAT as part of an application for admission. (See also SAT I and SAT II)
A form of small group instruction, combining independent research and class discussions under the guidance of a professor.
The US Air Force Academy, US Coast Guard Academy, US Merchant Marine Academy, US Military Academy and US Naval Academy. Admissions is highly selective, as students must be nominated by their Congressional Representative in order to apply.
Sheltered/Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
A teaching approach intended for instructing students who are still learning English. SDAIE or sheltered classes are offered in the English language in various academic content areas (such as social studies, science or literature) SDAIE requires the student possess intermediate fluency in English as well as mastery of their native language. The curriculum and instruction is carefully designed so the student can access the English language content supported by material in their primary language. There is a focus on strategies that increase comprehension. SDAIE is not the same as an English-only submersion program where the student is dependent solely on English, nor is it a watered down curriculum. SDAIE is an approach that seeks to teach both content and language in a cognitively demanding classroom context. According to the UC Office of the President’s "a-g" Guide, “As sheltered and SDAIE course titles simply refer to the instructional methodology (rather than course content), it is expected that sheltered/SDAIE courses in history/social science, mathematics, laboratory science, visual and performing arts, and the elective area would be equivalent in content and skill development to comparable courses taught in the same subject area (i.e., Sheltered Algebra should be equivalent to Algebra 1; SDAIE US History should be equivalent to US History)”.
Stafford LoansFederal loans that come in two forms, subsidized and unsubsidized. Subsidized loans are based on need; unsubsidized loans aren't. The interest on the subsidized Stafford Loan is paid by the federal government while the student is in school and during the 6 month grace period. The Subsidized Stafford Loan was formerly known as the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL). The Unsubsidized Stafford Loan may be used to pay the EFC.
Student Aid Report (SAR)
Student Aid Report (SAR) — Report of the government’s review of a student’s FAFSA. The SAR is sent to the student and released electronically to the schools that the student listed. The SAR does not supply a real money figure for aid but indicates whether the student is eligible.
Report that summarizes the information included in the FAFSA and must be provided to your school's FAO. The SAR will also indicate the amount of Pell Grant eligibility, if any, and the Expected Family Contribution (EFC). You should receive a copy of your SAR four to six weeks after you file your FAFSA. Review your SAR and correct any errors on part 2 of the SAR. Keep a photocopy of the SAR for your records. To request a duplicate copy of your SAR, call 1-319-337-5665.
Student Contribution (SC)
The amount of money the federal government expects a student to contribute to her/his education. The SC depends on the student's income and assets, but can vary from school to school. Usually a student is expected to contribute about 20% of his or her savings and approximately one-half of his summer earnings above $3,000.
With a subsidized loan, such as the Perkins Loan or the Subsidized Stafford Loan, the government pays interest on the loan while the student is in school, during the six-month grace period following graduation, and during any deferment periods. Subsidized loans are awarded based on financial need and may not be used to finance the family contribution.
Supplemental Education Opportunity Grant (SEOG)
Federal grant program for undergraduate students with exceptional need. SEOG grants are awarded by the school's financial aid office, and provide up to $4,000 per year. To qualify, a student must also be a recipient of a Pell Grant.
An outline of the important information about a course. Written by the professor or instructor, it usually includes important dates, assignments, expectations and policies specific to that course. Some are quite lengthy.
Transcript (High School)
A certified copy of a student's educational record containing titles of courses, the number of credits, and the final grades in each course. An official transcript also includes the date that a student graduates and a diploma has been conferred.
The transcript is a permanent academic record of a student at college. It may show courses taken, grades received, academic status and honors received. Transcripts are not released by the college if the student owes any money to the college.
Transcript Evaluation Services (TES)
A state-of-the-art technology tool provided through the University of California Office of the President that integrates academic preparation with financial preparedness to improve academic achievement for California high schools and their students.
- TES's comprehensive reporting on school-wide college preparatory course progress helps school administrators fine-tune their course offerings and bolster their school’s college readiness.
- TES's expert transcript analysis helps students and their counselors choose the right classes at the right time to help them become college and career ready.
The TES website is at http://www.transcriptevaluationservice.com
Transfer of Credits
Many students attend more than one college. When they move or transfer from one college to another, they also transfer accumulated credit hours from the former institution to the new one. The new institution determines which courses will apply toward graduation requirements.
This program is usually found in a two-year college or in a four-year college that offers associate degrees. It allows a student to continue his or her studies in a four-year college by maintaining designated criteria set down at acceptance to the two-year program. It is not necessary to earn an associate degree to transfer.
A student who transfers from one college or university to another. Credits applied toward the transfer will be evaluated by the receiving school to determine the number it will accept. Each school sets different policies for transfers, so anyone considering this option should seek guidance.
The amount paid for each credit hour of enrollment. Tuition does not include the cost of books, fees, or room and board. Tuition charges vary from college to college and are dependent on such factors as resident or out-of-state status, level of classes enrolled in (lower, upper or graduate division), and whether the institution is publicly or privately financed.
Two- or four-year programs in a college or university after high school graduation, leading to the associate or bachelor's degree.
A number that indicates the amount of college credit given for a course (typically, 60 units are required for an Associate’s Degree).
Universal College Application
See Common Application
An educational institution that usually maintains one or more four-year undergraduate colleges (or schools) with programs leading to a bachelor's degree, a graduate school of arts and sciences awarding master's degrees and doctorates (Ph.D.s), and graduate professional schools.
University of California/ UC Eligibility Index
The U.C. Eligibility Index indicates the GPA and test scores required for eligibility to the University of California campuses. To find out the combination of GPA and test scores you need, go to
http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/admissions/undergrad_adm/paths_to_adm/freshman/scholarship_reqs.html for more information. NOTE: The minimum GPA required is higher for non-resident students.
This term refers to the junior and senior years of study. In some cases, students complete the lower division before entering or transferring to another college to complete upper-division study and earn a bachelor’s degree.
A college outreach program which targets low income, first generation college students. Services include tutoring, counseling, student/parent conferences, social/cultural activities, Saturday classes, and a summer residential program. Upward Bound
This is the use of the Internet to investigate various colleges by looking at their home pages. A student can “tour” the college, ask questions vie e-mail, read school newspapers, and explore course offerings and major requirements on line. While not a substitute for a live campus visit, this can be a virtual visit can help students learn more about colleges of interest.
Waiver to View Recommendations
The form many schools ask their students to sign by which they agree not to review their teachers’ recommendation letters before they are sent to the colleges or universities to which they are applying.
Weighted and Capped GPA
A Weighted and Capped GPA is the GPA which is used to determine general UC eligibility. It is the same as the Weighted GPA except it only includes up to 8 semester classes of UC approved Honors, AP, IB and UC/CSU Transferable Community College courses. Only 4 of those semester classes can be in the 10th grade.
Weighted GPA, Fully Weighted GPA
A Weighted GPA includes all UC approved AP, IB, and Honors classes and UC/CSU Transferable Community College courses taken after the summer of 9th grade.
Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC)
One of six regional associations that accredit public and private schools, colleges, and universities in the United States. The Western region covers institutions in California and Hawaii, the territories of Guam, American Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, the Pacific Basin, and East Asia, and areas of the Pacific and East Asia where American/International schools or colleges may apply to it for service. The Accrediting Commission for Schools has the responsibility for accreditation of all schools below the college.
The administrative procedure of dropping a course or leaving an institution.
A program which assists college students to find part-time work on or off campus and subsidizes their wages. Awarded to students with need.
On and off campus employment designed to pay for educational expenses for eligible undergraduate and graduate students. Programs are customarily offered through local school districts, private or nonprofit organizations and local, state or federal agencies.
Last modified on 1/14/2010